Electrical Building Assessment

 

Introduction

Building assessments are done for many reasons. For example, an Owner may want an assessment done to anticipate and budget for future maintenance work, or a prospective Owner may want to better evaluate the true cost of a building.(Figure 1)

Because electrical equipment is generally quiet and stationary, it is sometimes overlooked when considering the overall condition of a building. However, electrical equipment should not be expected to function safely, effectively, and sustainable over several decades so it must be considered. This paper will help the reader recognize some signs that belie hidden dangers and costs and will show how to recognize some opportunities for energy (cost) savings when assessing electrical components.

This paper is offered as a guide to perform a general assessment of a building’s major electrical systems. For a more thorough review, a design professional or qualified electrician should be engaged.

 

Power Distribution

The power distribution system is typically the most expensive and important of all the electrical systems. This system starts with the electrical service to the building at the main service disconnect and distributes out to transformers, panel boards, and large equipment, including the wiring to these devices. A well-maintained system is essential to a building’s operation. Recognizing that the useful life expectancy of these components can range between 20 to 30 years is an important start to evaluating the power distribution system.

Therefore, finding the approximate age of these components is the first item to investigate. This can be accomplished by looking at dates on record drawings and by performing a visual inspection of the system. Visual inspections include looking for equipment damage such as rust, dents, water damage, devices falling off their mounting system, or broken equipment such as conduits and junction boxes protecting wiring (Figure 2). A good visual inspection can be followed up by verifying whether the existing equipment is obsolete and if parts are still available from the original equipment manufacturer. To do this, provide nameplate data or a photo to a manufacturer. The manufacturer should be able to help you determine equipment or part availability. Generally though, you can assume that components are not easily available for equipment older than 30 years.

The electrical equipment layout is also a good clue to use during an assessment. Older buildings tend to have disconnects and other equipment that was “tacked on” to the original service gear as the building use changed. Proper labeling was often not provided, making equipment difficult and dangerous to operate, to troubleshoot, and to use (Figure 3). In contrast, a good layout would include a main service panel with feeder breakers or fuses serving panels and equipment throughout the building, with spaces or spares for future expansion. Also, all components and circuits would be clearly identified and labeled.

Environmental conditions should also be considered. Expected life is significantly reduced if the equipment is out in the open and subjected to damage from vehicles, water (flooding), dust, heat and weather (Figure 4).

Electrical systems that have been protected from these environments, such as being installed in dedicated rooms (Figure 5) with proper ventilation, or in clean environments such as office spaces, will have a greater chance to meet or exceed their useful life expectancy. Check for signs that indicate how well the equipment has been maintained.

It is important to exercise the equipment and perform yearly maintenance per the manufacturer’s recommendations. “Exercising” means switching components off and on to prevent dust and corrosion build-up on contacts and moving parts. Look for information on the equipment such as an Electrical Contractor’s name and number, Test procedures with dates, or even Arc Flash Warning signs. Many times an electrical contractor is hired to perform maintenance or exercise a building’s electrical system. The Contractor should be contacted to discuss any insight they may have about the equipment.

Current codes require Arc Flash Warning Signs on the equipment. If the signs are not present, this is an indication that the panels have not been evaluated recently. When this information is not attainable or present, there may be a high probability that problems may arise, such as overprotection devices not opening during an overload (which could cause personnel injury) or overprotection devices not closing once they are opened.

 

Generators

Generators are normally used to provide electricity during a power outage to prevent disruption of essential daily tasks. Typically, they provide power for emergency/exit lighting and possibly other critical functions like I.T. and Security. Their function can also be expanded to provide back-up power for critical processes or even entire buildings. Therefore, these machines require special attention when assessing a building’s electrical systems. When performing a visual assessment on the emergency power system, the following should be observed:

  • Equipment age and usage (hours)
  • Damaged equipment (rust, cracks, etc.)
  • Emergency equipment location and condition
  • Fluid Levels and leaks
  • Wet Stacking (condition where diesel engines do not fully burn the fuel that passes through the exhaust system)
  • Components altered from original design
  • Potential issues with today’s codes
  • Clearances
  • Red Flag obsolete equipment
  • For generators located inside the building, the mechanical engineer performing the building assessment should review the exhaust and room conditions.

Just like your car engine requires routine maintenance, a generator needs to be regularly maintained so that it performs when needed. The better the maintenance and service, the longer the generator will function without expensive repairs which can lead to unwanted down time; “find the smaller problems before they lead to the big ones.” Preventive maintenance and services are vital to ensure proper operation and to extend the useful life of a generator. Check the generator’s testing records to see if the following procedures have been done on a regular basis:

  • Checking of fluid levels (oil, coolant, etc.)
  • Inspection of starting system (battery and chargers)
  • Season or every 200 hours
  • Lubrication
  • Replacement of worn out parts
  • Verification of control panel display information
  • Testing any mechanical interlocks
  • Use of quality fuel stabilizers
  • Performing a visual inspection for cleanliness inside and out
  • Operating the generator at least once a month (except for health care facilities) and under load once a year.

Lighting

While lighting is a major component of a building’s electrical systems, it usually provides the easiest and most effective opportunity for energy savings. This section will provide general assessment information along with some easily implemented energy efficiency ideas.

Between lamp replacement, fixture maintenance and small renovations, the lighting fixtures and lamps in a building are often a mixed bag. Because of this, it can be difficult to fully catalog all lighting types without a thorough assessment. After assessing the lights in the building, one should consider upgrades using LED sources for improved energy efficiency.

The first and most important item to record during the lighting assessment is the fixture’s condition. Fixtures should be examined for corrosion and wear. Examine the painted areas for chips and scratches, the metallic portion of the fixture for discoloration, and the lenses for water stains. If corrosion is obvious on the exterior of the fixture, it’s a safe assumption that the fixture internals are also corroded. In addition to corrosion, check for cracked lenses and crooked fixture mounts, as both pose a failing risk. Finally, if possible, spot check the wiring connections on randomly selected fixtures to make sure they are securely wired.

Even though lighting is slowly transitioning to LED, there are still many buildings with dated lamps. Some older types of lamps that can be found in buildings are:

  • T-12
  • T-8
  • HID (Metal Halide, High Pressure Sodium)
  • CFL
  • U-Lamps
  • Circline Lamps

Each of these lamp types has a unique selection of LED retrofit options. These LED retrofits can be classified into two broad categories: bypass lamps and direct lamps. With a bypass lamp, the fixture’s ballast is removed and the fixture is rewired to deliver full line voltage to the LED lamp. A direct lamp is simply “plug and play.”

“Plug and play” lamps may seem like the easiest option. Bypass lamps have the benefit of removing the ballast from the fixture, thus removing a significant point of failure. Either way, lamp replacement costs (including labor and material) can be paid back in under two (2) years.

The second item to record while performing a lighting assessment is the lighting levels in the building. When visiting a building, you can use a light meter to help measure the different light levels in a space in the building. The lighting levels can vary depending on the time of the day and direct sunlight exposure. If a building has tall windows, the lighting levels should be measured at various times of the day. The exposure to sunlight should be considered for lighting calculations during the day and during the night.

Another item to take into consideration is the egress lighting. There are some egress rules that need to be followed and should be verified during the lighting assessment. For example, all exit routes must have some type of emergency lighting. These routes may include stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, passageways, or any path of egress. In case of an emergency and the building loses power, the emergency lighting should emit at least 1 footcandle in the building and 0.1 footcandle in the path of egress. These conditions should be met for at least 90 minutes after losing power. After 90 minutes, the lighting levels may drop to 0.6 footcandle in the building, and 0.06 footcandle in the path of egress. There should also be a 40:1 maximum to minimum ratio for illumination uniformity.

Lastly, look at the emergency battery units. The emergency battery units have the same requirements as typical emergency lighting. The battery in the units needs to be tested for 30 seconds on a monthly basis and 90 minutes annually. During these tests the battery should be able to bring the fixture back to life after the simulated loss of power. During the annual test, the emergency battery unit must be able to illuminate for all 90 minutes. If the fixture fails during this testing period, the battery needs to be replaced. The typical life for a battery is 5-7 years. To observe proper battery operation and illumination, a power outage should be simulated by turning off breakers that provide normal lighting power. If emergency power is provided by a generator, a qualified person should be employed to simulate the outage.

 

“While lighting is a major component of a building’s electrical systems,
it usually provides the easiest and most effective opportunity for energy savings.”

 

Fire Alarm

Three areas should be looked at during a general fire alarm system assessment: devices, the control panel and overall system considerations. The devices are the pull stations, horns, strobes, speakers, smoke detectors and other components that are usually readily seen during a walk-through of the building. As devices are surveyed, the following questions should be addressed:

  • Are the pull stations located so they are accessible? Older systems (pre-1990) may have pull stations installed above 60”. In most cases, this is in violation of current accessibility codes. All pull stations should be lowered to a compliant height.
  • Do the device placements still make sense? As buildings are renovated, sometimes fire alarm devices are overlooked. For example, a large room could get divided into smaller rooms, potentially leaving some spaces without visual or audible alarms.
  • Are the strobes ADA compliant? Newer ADA compliant strobes use clear plastic lenses which accommodate high light levels during alarm conditions. Older strobes used white translucent plastic lenses that did not cast much light. These older strobes are not ADA compliant.
  • Is the cabling adequately protected? Look above accessible ceilings to see if the fire alarm cabling is neatly strapped or (better) in conduit. Cabling should not be exposed below ceilings in most areas of the building.

After walking through the building, the control panel location should be evaluated. This is the heart of the system, so careful attention should be paid here:

  • Are there any signs of alarms being indefinitely silenced? There should be indication of this via LED’s or an LCD read-out.
  • Has the control panel been tampered with? Look for buttons being taped, signs of bypassing (wire nuts in odd locations, wires not connected) and other suspect field modifications.
  • Look for notes written in and on the panel that may reveal ongoing issues.
  • Is the system turned on? Make sure there is power indication.
  • Code requires a smoke detector to be installed above or near the control panel.

 

Finally, there are some general issues that should be investigated. This investigation will probably start at the control panel, but could be helped by someone familiar with the system. Determine who maintains and/or tests the system. There may be a sticker on the control panel with a company name, or the current owner may know who this is. If you are not able to find someone familiar with this particular panel, perform an internet search for the manufacturer and model number of the panel and find someone local who can provide general information:

 

 

  • How old is the system? Modern fire alarm systems are made of electronics and are highly code driven. Therefore they have a definite expected life cycle. Systems over 20 years old should be replaced or upgraded, if possible.
  • Ask the vendor or manufacturer about availability and cost of parts and devices. Sometimes parts and devices are no longer stocked by the manufacturer and must be creatively searched for via the internet or other sources. This can be difficult and expensive.
  • If building expansion is a possibility, the vendor/manufacturer should be asked about the expandability of the system.
  • Look around for testing documentation to see if the system has been tested regularly.
  • If a thorough assessment of an existing fire alarm system is needed for code compliance or costing, an engineer or fire alarm professional should be consulted.

 

Conclusion

Electrical systems can become outdated, inefficient, and even dangerous without proper maintenance and care. Although these systems are normally silent and motionless, this doesn’t mean they will always operate properly when needed.

An electrical systems assessment can reveal expensive and potentially dangerous issues. It can also provide an Owner (or prospective Owner) with opportunities for long term cost savings. The information presented in this paper provides a means for a general understanding of a building’s major electrical systems. As mentioned, an industry professional should be contacted if a detailed assessment is needed. Some information an industry professional could provide:

  • Return on investment for energy efficiency upgrades
  • Cost estimates for upgrades and replacements
  • Recommendations along with a timeline that can be used for budgeting
  • Review of other systems like CCTV, Access Control, Information Technology cabling, Public Address, and Emergency Communications

Whether done by an electrical professional or by some other interested party, an electrical assessment should be included as part of any overall building assessment.

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For more information on Electrical Building Assessment or other Electrical, Lighting or Telecommunications topics, please contact:

 

Thomas E. Petersen, PE, LEED AP
Principal
Director of Electrical Engineering
direct 414.918.1225
tom.petersen@hecl.com

Effective Facility Maintenance and Energy Management of HVAC Systems in Commercial Applications

Introduction

HVAC systems serving commercial buildings contain many working parts and are a costly, yet necessary, investment. Routine maintenance of existing HVAC systems is necessary to keep them working optimally for the longest time possible. However, each system has a limited life expectancy. Replacement or retrofitting can provide an opportunity to utilize more energy efficient equipment that will reduce operating costs over the life of the system. Consideration for high efficiency systems and advanced control strategies when laying out a HVAC system for a new building can also positively impact operating costs. Sometimes even paying back the cost to implement them.

 

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Maintenance

Maintenance of an existing facility is improved by developing and following a Preventive Maintenance Plan (PMP). Equipment and equipment that are good candidates for inclusion in your PMP will have the following characteristics:

  • The repair/replacement costs are high
  • Maintenance must be performed routinely
  •  The equipment is critical to occupant comfort and your company’s success.

The following equipment information is useful to include in your PMP:

  • Make and model of the equipment
  • Serial number
  • Basic specification and capabilities
  • Asset number, brass tag number, or unit number
  • Category (HVAC, plumbing, electrical, etc)
  • The location of the equipment
  • The department who holds responsibility
  • Any high cost or long lead time items of the asset

Additional maintenance requirements can be found in the manufacturer’s operations and maintenance manuals provided with the equipment. Once all the information has been gathered, a list of maintenance actions and frequency can be established and assigned to personnel. It is important to anticipate equipment operating life so budgeting for a replacement can occur at the proper time.

Tables are available from ASHRAE with median service life listed for various equipment types at www.ashrae.org/database

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Retrofitting

Retrofitting equipment and controls can be beneficial when looking to reduce energy use in an existing facility. A good starting point is to set a baseline for your building’s energy performance. We recommend using the Energy Star Portfolio Manager®. This is a free tool used to compare your building energy use with similar buildings throughout the country. Some Building Controls retrofit strategies include:

Supply Air Temperature Reset
• Reduces amount of reheat energy required

Supply Water Temperature Reset
• Lower return water temperature entering boiler increases equipment efficiency

Programmable Thermostats/Occupancy Sensors
• Setback/Setup temperatures in spaces when unoccupied for energy savings

Lastly, replace existing inefficient equipment with new, high efficiency
equipment.

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New Construction

New Construction allows for the incorporation of high efficiency equipment. Some basic information is as follows:

High Efficiency Equipment
• While there is a premium price for higher efficiency equipment, paybacks are usually less than 5 years.
• In some cases utility rebate programs also help reduce costs.

Energy Recovery
• Can reduce outside air heating/cooling up to 75%.
• Prohibited from use in some applications (labs, kitchens).

Geothermal
• Payback varies greatly depending on local soil conditions, application and comparison system.
• Will usually require in depth analysis to determine if viable; don’t always trust simple paybacks.
• Request Geotech report. Test bores recommended.

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For more information on Effective Facility Maintenance and Energy Management of HVAC Systems in Commercial Applications or other HVAC topics, please contact:

 

Christopher Staab, PE, LEED AP BD+C
Vice President
Director of Mechanical Engineering
direct 414.918.1223
christopher.staab@hecl.com  

County Law Enforcement Center Plumbing Design

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Introduction

All county law enforcement centers are not alike. Although general operations may be very similar as dictated by State and local codes, the operation is often influenced by the available resources of Sheriff’s Department staff and facilities maintenance personnel.

The placement and detailed planning of building plumbing infrastructure to accommodate maintenance, security and architectural requirements are at the forefront of design challenges.

Our design process begins with a tour of the existing facility and interviews with the Sheriff’s Department staff, as well as maintenance staff, to determine current and future needs. This includes, but is not limited to, current operations, level of housing unit fixture control (manual or electronic), and plumbing product manufacturer preferences such as valves, fixtures and equipment.

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Access to Building Plumbing Infrastructure

One of the first priorities occurring in schematic design is to work closely with the architect to determine plumbing chase locations and configurations.

Accessible chases are important for maintenance staff to be able to reach security fixture controls, shut-off valves, hot water mixing valves and sanitary cleanouts.

Continuous perimeter chases around the boundary of inmate housing unit areas have proven to be most successful in lieu of triangular chases between cells with access doors from Day Rooms. The continuous perimeter chases allow maintenance access in most cases without having to travel through secure areas.

Sanitary Drainage System

In all correctional facilities, the placement of sanitary cleanouts is extremely important. As mentioned previously, these cleanouts should be located within piping chases readily accessible by maintenance staff. It is recommended that each security toilet fixture is provided with a dedicated cleanout on an individual stack or branch to isolate the origin of contraband introduced into the drainage system. Cleanouts can be provided with pins or hooks as directed by Sheriff’s Department staff. Hooks tend to be more efficient in catching contraband, but have proven to be very maintenance intensive. Our experience has been that in most cases cleanout pins perform effectively and are preferred by maintenance staff.

  • Floor drains within inmate housing units are typically located within plumbing chases, outside of groups of cells and within shower areas.
  • Floor drains and cleanouts within inmate accessible areas cannot always be avoided and should be specified with vandal resistant fasteners.
  • Floor drains are also located within staff and public toilet rooms areas, staff locker rooms, mechanical rooms, kitchen and laundry areas.
  • Sanitary drainage piping material can be schedule 40 PVC or cast iron. PVC is typically specified and has been proven to be successful in this application.
  • Catch basins and trench drains are typically provided within vehicle storage areas as well as the Sally Port garage.

An alternate method of sanitary drainage that may be considered is a vacuum drainage system. While the initial cost is more expensive than a gravity drainage system, the water saving cost may offset this investment. A careful analysis for cost/benefit/payback would need to be performed with the facilities maintenance facilities staff in early design stages to determine whether it would be feasible to implement this system. The cost of municipal water is obviously a large factor in decision making.

 

Water Distribution Systems

Zoning
Water distribution system design should consider the various functions of a county law enforcement facility and be zoned accordingly.

Separate water distribution zones would include public/staff areas, kitchen/laundry and inmate housing areas. This piping arrangement allows isolating each area with shut-off valves for maintenance and security considerations.

The placement of water heating equipment would follow the same pattern, resulting in a decentralized hot water distribution system containing a water heating plant for each zone. While slightly more costly, multiple zones with decentralized water heating allow more flexibility. Any required maintenance shutdown of one zone would not affect the others, thus avoiding disruption of facility operations. Also, when designing the hot water distribution systems, redundancy should be considered to maintain the ability to support 60 to 75% of the demand in any given zone.

System Control

“Control of water to inmate housing units can be as simple as utilizing manual shut-off valves in chases, master solenoid shutoff valves on mains in chases to isolate housing unit quadrants, or individual electronic control of each fixture.”

The opening and closing of master solenoid valves would be controlled from the centrally located housing unit guard station. Another option would be individual electronic control of fixtures to provide an on/off capability, adjustment of metering time or adjusting lockout times. All of these options should be discussed with the facility staff during the schematic and design development phase of building design.

Other Considerations
Hose bibbs should be provided within the Vehicle Sally Port, intake, and adjacent to inmate shower areas. Hose bibbs should be located within flush access boxes with lockable doors. Other hose bibb locations to consider are mechanical rooms.

Water pressure in correction facilities should be a minimum 35-40 PSI delivered to the remote security fixture as well as emergency fixtures. Booster pumps should be considered when available municipal water pressure cannot accommodate these criteria.

A water quality report with iron and hardness data should be obtained from the local water utility  to determine the requirement for water treatment. Hardness above 4-5 grains may have an impact on kitchen and laundry equipment as well as hot water mixing valves.

Exposed Piping Systems

Piping located within inmate housing units, which cannot be concealed within architectural elements or plumbing chases, should be concealed behind premanufactured steel soffiting systems for vandal resistance. This condition is especially prevalent in areas of exposed concrete beams, columns and precast plank where coordination with the building structure is critical.

Plumbing Fixtures

General use areas – staff/public water closets, lavatories and urinals are typically specified to be constructed of vitreous china. Faucets and flush valves can be specified as manually or sensor operated as directed by facility staff. Lavatories are also commonly solid surface material integral with countertops.

Miscellaneous sinks in medical, kitchen, laundry, and break areas are typically specified to be constructed of stainless steel.

Inmate housing units would contain security fixtures constructed of 12 to 14 gauge stainless steel. This includes lavatories, water closets, combi units and shower panels. Operation can be air operated push button or electronic push button. Inmate toilets are typically specified with an anti-flooding option to automatically disable a water closet when contraband causes clogging of the drain, avoiding a flooding condition.

 

Shower operation is typically electronic to allow adjustable run time.

Areas such as medical, special needs or intake are specified with anti-ligature fixtures, which modifies the fixture profile to reduce the likelyhood of suicide or other injury.

Emergency eye wash fixtures with thermostatic mixing valves are provided within the Sally Port, kitchen, laundry and medical areas.

“The main objective in county law enforcement plumbing design is to create systems that are accessible for maintenance, deter vandalism and keep inmates and staff safe. “

Conclusion

While all building types have specific plumbing design problems to solve, law enforcement facilities pose unique and critical challenges to the plumbing designer.

VIEW Case Studies 

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For more information on County Law Enforcement Center Plumbing Design or other Plumbing/Fire Protection topics,
please contact:

Patrick J Geraghty, DE
Vice President
Director of Plumbing and
Fire Protection Design
direct 414.918.1210
patrick.geraghty@hecl.com